The life and philosophies of aristotle

Failure is extremely difficult to handle, but those that do come out stronger.

Aristotle (384—322 B.C.E.)

The two kinds of passions that Aristotle focuses on, in his treatment of akrasia, are the appetite for pleasure and anger.

Second, there is the idea that whenever a virtuous person chooses to perform a virtuous act, he can be described as aiming at an act that is in some way or other intermediate between alternatives that he rejects.

We need to engage in ethical theory, and to reason well in this field, if we are to move beyond the low-grade form of virtue we acquired as children.

Aristotle explains what each of these states of mind is, draws various contrasts among them, and takes up various questions that can be raised about their usefulness. Addressing the moral skeptic, after all, is the project Plato undertook in the Republic: He aims at a mean in the sense that he looks for a response that avoids too much or too little attention to factors that must be taken into account in making a wise decision.

He will elaborate on these points in X. It should be noticed that Aristotle's treatment of akrasia is heavily influenced by Plato's tripartite division of the soul in the Republic.

Taking pleasure in an activity does help us improve at it, but enjoyment does not cease when perfection is achieved—on the contrary, that is when pleasure is at its peak. One might like someone because he is good, or because he is useful, or because he is pleasant.

Book VII of the Nicomachean Ethics is identical to Book VI of the Eudemian Ethics; for unknown reasons, the editor of the former decided to include within it both the treatment of pleasure that is unique to that work X. He is convinced that the loss of this private sphere would greatly detract from a well-lived life, but he is hard put to explain why.

One of Plato's central points is that it is a great advantage to establish a hierarchical ordering of the elements in one's soul; and he shows how the traditional virtues can be interpreted to foster or express the proper relation between reason and less rational elements of the psyche.

Aristotle's Ethics

Preliminaries Aristotle wrote two ethical treatises: At the same time, he is acutely aware of the fact that reasoning can always be traced back to a starting point that is not itself justified by further reasoning. Things have both potentiality what it is capable of doing or becoming, if not prevented by something else and actuality the fulfillment or the end of the potentiality.

Suppose we grant, at least for the sake of argument, that doing anything well, including living well, consists in exercising certain skills; and let us call these skills, whatever they turn out to be, virtues.

The theory of the mean is open to several objections, but before considering them, we should recognize that in fact there are two distinct theses each of which might be called a doctrine of the mean.

Aristotle's Ethics

Second, there is the idea that whenever a virtuous person chooses to perform a virtuous act, he can be described as aiming at an act that is in some way or other intermediate between alternatives that he rejects.

The evil person may wholeheartedly endorse some evil plan of action at a particular moment, but over the course of time, Aristotle supposes, he will regret his decision, because whatever he does will prove inadequate for the achievement of his goals b5— If we imagine a life filled with pleasure and then mentally add wisdom to it, the result is made more desirable.

First, when a sick person experiences some degree of pleasure as he is being restored to health, the pleasure he is feeling is caused by the fact that he is no longer completely ill. Nonetheless, an excellent juror can be described as someone who, in trying to arrive at the correct decision, seeks to express the right degree of concern for all relevant considerations.

Just as a big mouse can be a small animal, two big chapters can make a small book. This supplement to the doctrine of the mean is fully compatible with Aristotle's thesis that no set of rules, no matter how long and detailed, obviates the need for deliberative and ethical virtue.

In one of several important methodological remarks he makes near the beginning of the Nicomachean Ethics, he says that in order to profit from the sort of study he is undertaking, one must already have been brought up in good habits b4—6.

His point is simply that although some pleasures may be good, they are not worth choosing when they interfere with other activities that are far better. Poverty, isolation, and dishonor are normally impediments to the exercise of virtue and therefore to happiness, although there may be special circumstances in which they are not.

But some vulnerability to these disruptive forces is present even in more-or-less virtuous people; that is why even a good political community needs laws and the threat of punishment. But it is also clear that he takes this motive to be compatible with a love of one's own good and a desire for one's own happiness.

Where Plato had located ultimate reality in ideas or eternal Forms, knowable only through reflection and reason, Aristotle saw ultimate reality in physical objects, knowable through experience. If one's ultimate end should simply be virtuous activity, then why should it make any difference to one's happiness whether one has or lacks these other types of good?

The philosopher will need to determine, in particular situations, where justice lies, how to spend wisely, when to meet or avoid a danger, and so on. Even though Aristotle's ethical theory sometimes relies on philosophical distinctions that are more fully developed in his other works, he never proposes that students of ethics need to engage in a specialized study of the natural world, or mathematics, or eternal and changing objects.

Page and line numbers shall henceforth refer to this treatise. The Doctrine of the Mean 5.

Aristotle’s Philosophy (Summary)

Aristotle in the Middle Ages and Beyond In the 13th century Aristotle was reintroduced to the West through the work of Albertus Magnus and especially Thomas Aquinas, whose brilliant synthesis of Aristotelian and Christian thought provided a bedrock for late medieval Catholic philosophy, theology and science.

Though he is guided to some degree by distinctions captured by ordinary terms, his methodology allows him to recognize states for which no names exist. It is important to bear in mind that when Aristotle talks about impetuosity and weakness, he is discussing chronic conditions.Aristotle, the philosopher of the rationality (city and individuals) Aristotle is one of the most famous Greek philosophers.

Aristotle was a pupil of Plato and was first reverent to him then very critical, about Plato’s theory of ideas for example. Although Aristotle argues for the superiority of the philosophical life in X.7–8, he says in X.9, the final chapter of the Ethics, that his project is not yet complete, because we can make human beings virtuous, or good even to some small degree, only if we undertake a study of the art of legislation.

Aristotle, Greek Aristoteles, (born bce, Stagira, Chalcidice, Greece—diedChalcis, Euboea), ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history. He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic philosophy.

Aristotle provided a complex and harmonious synthesis of the various existing philosophies prior to him, including those of Socrates and Plato, and it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its fundamental intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of calgaryrefugeehealth.come ideas: Aristotelian philosophy, Syllogism, Theory of the soul, Virtue ethics.

Feb 22,  · Watch video · Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, together with Socrates and Plato, laid much of the groundwork for western philosophy. Aristotle wrote an estimated works, most in the form of notes and.

The meaning of life, Aristotle's solution is the Highest Good, which is desirable for its own sake. It is its own goal. Post modern philosophies that use the indeterminacy of symbolic language to deny definite meaning ignore those who feel they know what they mean and feel that their interlocutors know what they mean.

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The life and philosophies of aristotle
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